Overdraft

An overdraft can be either planned or unplanned. An unplanned overdraft occurs when a
depository institution honors a check or draft drawn against a deposit account when insufficient funds are on deposit and there is no advance contractual agreement to honor the check or draft. When a contractual agreement has been made in advance to allow such credit extensions, overdrafts are referred to as planned or prearranged. Any overdraft, whether planned or unplanned, is an extension of credit and is to be treated and reported as a “loan” rather than being treated as a negative deposit balance.
Planned overdrafts in depositors’ accounts are to be classified in Schedule RC-C, part I, by type of loan according to the nature of the overdrawn depositor. For example, a planned overdraft by a commercial customer is to be classified as a “commercial and industrial loan.”
Unplanned overdrafts in depositors’ accounts are to be classified in Schedule RC-C, part I, as “All other loans,” unless the depositor is a depository institution, a foreign government or foreign official institution, or a state or political subdivision in the U.S. Such unplanned overdrafts would be reported in Schedule RC-C, part I, item 2, “Loans to depository institutions and acceptances of other banks,” item 7, “Loans to foreign governments and official institutions,” and item 8, “Obligations (other than securities and leases) of states and political subdivisions in the U.S.,” respectively.
For purposes of treatment of overdrafts in depositors’ accounts, a group of related transaction accounts of a single type (i.e., demand deposit accounts or NOW accounts, but not a combination thereof) maintained in the same right and capacity by a customer (a single legal entity) that is established under a bona fide cash management arrangement by this customer function as, and are regarded as, one account rather than as multiple separate accounts. In such a situation, overdrafts in one or more of the transaction accounts within the group are not to be classified as loans unless there is a net overdraft position in the group of related transaction accounts taken as a whole. (NOTE: Affiliates and subsidiaries are considered separate legal entities.) For further information, see “cash management arrangements.”
The reporting bank’s overdrafts on deposit accounts it holds with other banks (i.e., its “due from” accounts) are to be reported as borrowings in Schedule RC, item 16, except overdrafts arising in connection with checks or drafts drawn by the reporting bank and drawn on, or payable at or through, another depository institution either on a zero-balance account or on an account that is not routinely maintained with sufficient balances to cover checks or drafts drawn in the normal course of business during the period until the amount of the checks or drafts is remitted to the other depository institution (in which case, report the funds received or held in connection with such checks or drafts as deposits in Schedule RC-E until the funds are remitted).

 

reference: FFIEC

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