What is metaphor?

metaphor meaning in Information Science terminology / glossary / dictionary is:

From the Greek word metapherein, meaning to “to carry across.” A figure of speech in which a word or phrase denoting a specific object, person, idea, etc., is applied to something with which it is not normally associated, to attribute one or more of its qualities to the other without using “like” or “as” to make an explicit comparison. The identification or substitution can be direct (“Oaths are straws, men’s faiths are wafer-cakes” from Henry V 2.3.51) or merely suggested (“Upon the heat and flame of thy distemper sprinkle cool patience” from Hamlet 3.4.123).Metaphor has been used as a literary device since the earliest works of recorded literature (“rosy-fingered dawn”) to enable imaginative writers to expand the literal meaning(s) of word and phrase. When the elements compared are so dissimilar as to be incongruous, the resulting mixed metaphor (“mixaphor”) can be amusing (“rusty lips”). A dead metaphor has become so commonplace as to have lost its force (“time marches on”). The history and grammar of metaphor is studied in the discipline of linguistics. Metaphors are sometimes collected and indexed, usually thematically (see the Metaphors Dictionary edited by Elyse Sommer and Dorrie Weiss).


reference: ABC-CLIO